FAYETTE COUNTY, TEXAS
From Fayette County, Her History and Her People by F. Lotto, 1902:
Winchester is situated in the northwestern part of Fayette county on the Waco branch of the San Antonio & Aransas Pass Railroad. It is about twenty miles distant from La Grange. The fertile Colorado River bottoms close by are tributary to its business. Part of the land is fertile mesquite prairie. There is also a great deal of postoak near Winchester. The Ingram prairie and the Cunningham prairie, the latter in Bastrop county, are in its neighborhood.
The teacher of the Winchester school is Miss Gillespie. Of lodges there are the Odd Fellows, Knights of Honor and Woodmen of the World.
The town has a Lutheran Church, Rev. A. L. Grasens, pastor; a Baptist Church, Rev. Duke, pastor; a Presbyterian Church, Rev J. W. Montgomery, pastor; and a Methodist Church, Rev. Calloway, pastor.
The town of Winchester was founded and laid off about the year 1857 by John Frame, who now lives in Falls county. It consists of seven general merchandise houses, one hotel, one butcher shop, two drugstores, two physicians, one saloon, one lumber yard, one blacksmith shop, one gin and one barbershop.
Of all the towns of Fayette county which are not incorporated Winchester does the largest business. It has become a lively town, due to the energy and business talent of her merchants, of whom Messrs. Sam F. Drake, W. A. Giles and E. Zilss may be mentioned as the most enterprising. Little & Mohler is the only saloon in the town; they are liberal and popular men and do as much business as any saloon in the county. Dr. A. F. Verderi is an old resident eminent physician of Winchester, who has effected a great many cures. [Note that all of the above purchased advertisements in Lotto's book.]
The settlement is one of the oldest in the whole county. As early as 1822 John Ingram, after whom Ingram's Prairie is named, came into that neighborhood and settled on the prairie. John C. Cunningham was another old settler of the Winchester neighborhood, but he settled in Bastrop county on the prairie named after him. The oldest settler of the Winchester neighborhood now living is A. D. Saunders. He has come there in the early forties and still remembers the last Indian raid in that neighborhood. Other prominent settlers are J. H. McCullom, Paul Haske, Dr. A. F. Verdery, G. C. Thomas, Mrs. James Young, Joseph Mohler, sr., Mrs. T. T. Parr.
The population of the settlement is largely American. Of late a great many Germans have come in. Winchester is a railroad station, postoffice and voting precinct of the county.
Footprints of Fayette Article reprinted from The Handbook of Texas Online and submitted by Gary McKee:
Winchester, named for Winchester, Tennessee, is on a line of the Southern Pacific Railroad twenty miles northwest of La Grange in northwest Fayette County. The area was first settled in 1827 by John Ingram, who received a grant nearby on the Colorado River still known as Ingram's Prairie. The town itself was platted in 1857 by John Gromme on lands originally granted to E. Campbell and J. F. Berry in 1831. A post office was established in 1866, and by 1900 the town had eighteen businesses. As a shipping point on the Waco branch of the San Antonio and Aransas Pass Railway, the community served a wide area of prosperous farms. Due to improved roads and the decline of cotton farming, the number of businesses dropped to nine by 1950, and the population dropped to 220. By the 1980s the population was fifty, and the settlement had four businesses. Most of the surrounding farmland had reverted to pasture for cattle, and additional revenues came from oil production. Through 2000 Winchester still had a population of fifty.
A Footprints of Fayette Article by David L. Collins, Sr.:
From Plantation Community to Boom Town and Bust
The African American Presence in Winchester, Texas
In a previous “Footprints” article that I wrote on the Catley Family of Winchester, Texas, I provided a history of the town, but primarily focused on one African American family. That article is online for anyone interested in reviewing it.
However, there is more to Winchester’s history, other than being one of the earlier settlements in Fayette County and the crossroads between Bastrop, Fayette and Lee Counties. The area also has had approximately 185 years of African American presence, which began in 1832 when John Ingram settled on a section of land, later known as Ingram’s Prairie, in the John F. Berry League in northwestern Fayette County with the intent to develop a cotton plantation. Winchester was founded about 20 years later when John Gromme platted the town and named it for Winchester, Tennessee, the birthplace of an early Anglo settler.
It is unknown exactly how many slaves Ingram owned up to1860, when a slave schedule shows that he owned twelve. However, after Ingram secured his land patent in 1827, surveyed his land and settled there in 1832, he helped coordinate a plantation community in the area. Plantations required a labor force to survive, so slaves were moved in from the southern states. That 1860 slave schedule also shows that other Winchester area plantation owners owned from eight to fifty-nine slaves. They pooled their resources to help one another and traded slaves back and forth for each other’s benefit.
Some of the leagues of land and plantations spanned from Fayette County into Bastrop County. The plantation community west of the Fayette County line in Bastrop County totaled over 13,000 acres; whereas, in Fayette County east of the Bastrop County line, there was a total of over 14,000 acres. This area of over 27,000 acres is one of the most fertile land masses in Texas, with the Colorado River as a major waterway, along with Pin Oak Creek, Little Pin Oak Creek and several sloughs and minor streams, all making it a perfect farming area that remains today.
Between 1832 and 1863, the combined plantation community grew at an astonishing rate as “cotton became king”. By 1860, slavery and tenant farming was in full force with several well-established plantations in the area, all of which contributed to the growth and prosperity of Winchester. Businesses eventually included a bank, physicians, druggists, mercantile stores, saloons, rooming houses, a hotel, blacksmiths and cotton gins, all built to provide for the needs of the people in the area.
When the Emancipation Proclamation became the law of the land in 1865, documentation of the actual percentage of African Americans became possible in subsequent census enumerations. Prior to this time, slaves were not identified by name, and many times were not enumerated at all. Thus, the 1870 U.S. Census reveals that the black population directly west of the Fayette County line in Bastrop County was 65 percent. The Winchester area directly east of the Bastrop County line and west of the town showed a similar percentage in black population. East of Winchester, the black population was almost 49 percent with the heaviest concentration being south of present-day FM 153 and east of the railroad tracks for approximately two miles. The combined total population, including all ethnic groups both east and west of Winchester, added up to 4,275 people feeding into the economic growth of the town in 1870.
At the end of the war, plantation owners in that area of Fayette County and extending into Bastrop County had an abundance of land to dispose of after they lost their labor force with the emancipation of their slaves. On the other hand, there was an abundance of ex-slaves with dreams of owning their own property.
Land ownership for the emancipated slaves was considered a way to achieve independence and the possibility of other rights. The skills that they had learned on plantations could also help sustain them on their own land. Instead, sharecropping left them with a life that was almost as difficult as slavery.
At the end of the war, “forty acres and a mule” was a cruel rumor initiated by General Sidney Sherman’s policy in South Carolina of redistributing property from white plantation owners to freed slaves. Although there was a push for nationalization of this policy throughout the confederate states, it never became part of federal law. However, this concept of 40 acres, minus the mule, was utilized by plantation owners needing to sell their land. They decided that 40 acres would be a manageable size for each African American buyer, plus it would be adequate for self-sustainability. Loans were negotiated for the purchase of these tracts. If there was a default on the loan, the owner reclaimed and resold his land.
About 20 percent of the blacks in Texas did not choose an urban life and managed to avoid being sharecroppers by taking advantage of this offer to buy land. They then created their own autonomous agricultural communities, known as Freedom Colonies, where they could experience peace and security in a segregated American society. Family and friends could live next to one another in the same area, so that there was a sense of togetherness and familiarity. Many Freedom Colonies became self-sustainable with their own churches, schools and small businesses.
(to be continued...)
Photo caption: Cotton pickers in the Winchester area; photo courtesy of Della Catley-Franklin
Traugott Michael Schoppa
Traugott Schoppa was a farmer at Winchester for most of his long life, although he lived at Vernon for a few years. He lost two wives, Ida Hentschel and Anna Graf, by the time he was thirty. He lived another fifty years after his third wife, Anna Traeger, passed away. (Photographer: Sink, Vernon, Texas)
Submitted by Tony Zoch Hettler
Texas Historical Marker
for Winchester Cemetery
Related Items at the Fayette County TXGenWeb Project:
Fayette County's Precinct Courthouses
A Footprints of Fayette article
See biographical information about David Porter Croft, buried in Winchester Cemetery
Terry's Texas Rangers Website
Related Articles at the Handbook of Texas Online:Winchester, Texas
James Seaton Lester
Theodore Sylvester Boone